Guia Foca é atualizado após 10 anos

🔓 append delete pekman

O Guia Foca (1), projeto voltado para a documentação técnica para sistemas operacionais GNU/Linux foi atualizado, após 10 anos sem receber revisões importantes.

Confira algumas novidades da nova fase do Guia Foca:

Confira o anúncio oficial do Guia Foca 2020 (2) para acessar o log completo das mudanças.

Para obter o guia, acesse a página de Download (3) do projeto.

1: https://guiafoca.org/
2: https://guiafoca.org/?cat=60
3: https://guiafoca.org/?page_id=51

Reply RSS

Replies

append delete #1. Davi_Linux

@spam

Size
Obviously, care should be taken to make sure that text is not presented too small. It’s also important to remember that the age of your audience may vary, hence the quality of their eyesight. Generally, it’s good to stay around 13px or .813em at smallest. Currently, with the wider implementation of responsive websites, there’s a trend moving toward larger body copy. In RWD, it’s also important to keep in mind that different text sizes for different devices may make sense. For instance, it may make sense to increase body copy size on a mobile phone width as opposed to a desktop width.

Measure
Another common practice that hinders type readability is allowing the horizontal lines of type on a page to become too wide. This distance is referred to as measure (also sometimes line length). If a line of type is too long it’s a tedious read and a stretch for the reader’s eye to return to the left edge of the text block for the next line. It’s also intimidating to see a block of text arranged this way and some readers may not even attempt to read it.

So what’s the maximum width a text block should be? Well, it all depends on the size of the text. The larger the text, the longer the line can be (that whole proportion thing again). In my opinion, generally around 70 characters is as long as you want to be. On average, for body copy sized text, I try to stay within 45ems.

Letter Spacing
Letter spacing (also referred to as tracking) is the consistent increase or decrease in distance between the letterforms in a word or block of text. It’s not to be confused with kerning, which refers to adjusting the distance between individual characters. Letter spacing can be used to adjust the density of a block of text or an individual headline or subhead.

Obviously, letter spacing does affect the readability of text. Too much or too little and readability will be compromised. However, there are times when, in my opinion, letter spacing is needed. As you can see in the graphic below, I like to add generous letter spacing to subheads or phrases of uppercase text. I find it's easier to read uppercase text when the characters have some additional space around them. Also, depending on the typeface used, I like to increase letter spacing slightly in body copy.

append delete #2. sopa

:: Readability

Readability is about arranging words and groups of words in a way that allows the readers eye to access the content easily and in a way that makes sense. It’s really an art form that is honed over time as successful combinations are found.

In my experience this tends to be one of the hardest concepts to grasp for beginning developers and designers alike. Even seasoned designers sometimes struggle with how to best arrange typography in a layout. Now that those two designations are starting to merge when it comes to web design, it’s important to begin to grasp the concept of readability. Here are a few things to keep in mind:

:: Spacing/Line Height

One of the most common typographic “mistakes” I see on the web today is improper type spacing. What I’m referring to here is instances where a block text isn’t given enough margin, subheads and correlated body text which aren’t visually grouped together, and so on. Proper spacing (combined with hierarchy) allows the reader to scan the text and access it at the desired points.

It’s not a hard-and-fast rule, but it seems to me that the relationship of paragraph spacing (additional spacing placed before or after a paragraph), the space around a block of type, and letter spacing can be related proportionally to the line height of a paragraph. Line height is defined as the vertical distance between lines of text. So for instance, if the line height of one paragraph is set to *2em* and a paragraph with the same size text is set to *1.5em*, the first paragraph will require more paragraph spacing and probably more margin around it.

Much of this is done by eye rather than an exact formula, but I do use a good rule of thumb when it comes to the relationship of paragraph spacing to line height. I typically make my paragraph spacing (which on the web translates to margin or padding placed at the top or bottom of a paragraph) around half of the line height. This tends to help passages of text “hold together” rather than using a full hard return between each paragraph, creating large amounts of space between paragraphs.

append delete #3. pekman

@Davi_Linux

:: Legibility

Let’s talk legibility first. It’s important to understand what makes one typeface more legible than another. When choosing a typeface, it all depends on how you plan to use it. Ask yourself some basic questions: What size will the text be used at? Will it appear as body copy or a headline? Does it need to be a workhorse or will it be used more as eye candy? Will it be paired with another font? Does the appearance of the typeface complement the subject matter?

It’s also important to keep in mind that different typefaces were designed for different uses. For example, the original Garamond was designed to be highly legible when printed in a large body of text. Some also say it was the most eco-friendly font of its time, conserving ink usage. Bell Centennial is a typeface commissioned by AT&T in the 1970's, designed to be used in telephone directories. These directories were made from cheap paper and for this reason Bell Centennial was designed in a way to accommodate ink spread during the printing process. On the digital side, there are fonts that have been designed specifically for the screen such as Georgia and Verdana. Azura is a relatively recent font designed specifically for reading text on screen.

In short, it helps to know the intended context of the typeface you are considering using. Some fonts are indeed quite flexible, include several weights and they can be used in several ways. Others are more constrained, designed to be used very specifically.

This leads us into the first of a few things to remember concerning a typeface’s legibility:

:: Display vs. Text

Some typefaces were designed to be used large, such as in headlines. Usually these typefaces are less readable at smaller sizes and should not be used for body copy. These are called display faces. The typeface shown below, Knockout, is one of my favorite display faces.

append delete #4. pekman

Size

Obviously, care should be taken to make sure that text is not presented too small. It’s also important to remember that the age of your audience may vary, hence the quality of their eyesight. Generally, it’s good to stay around 13px or .813em at smallest. Currently, with the wider implementation of responsive websites, there’s a trend moving toward larger body copy. In RWD, it’s also important to keep in mind that different text sizes for different devices may make sense. For instance, it may make sense to increase body copy size on a mobile phone width as opposed to a desktop width.

Measure
Another common practice that hinders type readability is allowing the horizontal lines of type on a page to become too wide. This distance is referred to as measure (also sometimes line length). If a line of type is too long it’s a tedious read and a stretch for the reader’s eye to return to the left edge of the text block for the next line. It’s also intimidating to see a block of text arranged this way and some readers may not even attempt to read it.

So what’s the maximum width a text block should be? Well, it all depends on the size of the text. The larger the text, the longer the line can be (that whole proportion thing again). In my opinion, generally around 70 characters is as long as you want to be. On average, for body copy sized text, I try to stay within 45ems.

Letter Spacing
Letter spacing (also referred to as tracking) is the consistent increase or decrease in distance between the letterforms in a word or block of text. It’s not to be confused with kerning, which refers to adjusting the distance between individual characters. Letter spacing can be used to adjust the density of a block of text or an individual headline or subhead.

Obviously, letter spacing does affect the readability of text. Too much or too little and readability will be compromised. However, there are times when, in my opinion, letter spacing is needed. As you can see in the graphic below, I like to add generous letter spacing to subheads or phrases of uppercase text. I find it's easier to read uppercase text when the characters have some additional space around them. Also, depending on the typeface used, I like to increase letter spacing slightly in body copy.

append delete #5. pekman

Teste de código

% javascript
// casos undefined e null nos quais o método substring não vai funcionar
var foo = undefined;
foo.substring(1); // TypeError: foo is undefined

var foo = null;
foo.substring(1); // TypeError: foo is null


// Certos métodos podem precisar de um tipo específico
var foo = {}
Symbol.keyFor(foo); // TypeError: foo is not a symbol

var foo = 'bar'
Object.create(foo); // TypeError: "foo" is not an object or null
%

:: @pekman added on 20 May ’20 · 03:08

Atualizando distros

% Devuan
# apt update && apt dist-upgrade
%
% Arch Linux
# pacman -Syyuu
%

:: @pekman added on 20 May ’20 · 03:21

%
      __...--~~~~~-._   _.-~~~~~--...__
    //               `V'               \\ 
   //                 |                 \\ 
  //__...--~~~~~~-._  |  _.-~~~~~~--...__\\ 
 //__.....----~~~~._\ | /_.~~~~----.....__\\
====================\\|//====================
                dwb `---`
%
append delete #6. pekman

Por que `empresas` que tinham, ou ainda têm, sites através dos quais oferecem praticamente os mesmos serviços que ora prestam através de app, incorreriam as despesas para desenvolver novos aplicativos para os diversos tipos de celulares, e ainda ofereceriam incentivos ou funcionalidades exclusivas para induzir você a instalá-los?

Não faz muito tempo, todo mundo usava `computadores` com o mesmo sistema operacional. Mas não faziam aplicativos para o computador, faziam sites. Agora, que é mais difícil, por conta da falta de uniformidade entre os `aparelhos`, resolvem investir não em adicionar novas funcionalidades ao site, que poderia atender igualmente bem celulares e computadores, mas em induzi-lo a instalar os apps no seu celular, não importa de que tipo seja. Qual a lógica?

append delete #7. pekman

Testando o _texto em itálico_

append delete #8. pekman

Testando divisores de textos

---

Esse foi um diviso

Segundo teste de diviso com espaço

---

Esse foi o segundo teste.

append delete #9. pekman

This is the first quote

This is the second quote

This is a third quote

append delete #10. pekman

Testando código dentro de citação

"
esse código é fera

% Arch Linux
# pacman -Syyuu
%

"

append delete #11. pekman

esse código é fera

% Arch Linux
# pacman -Syyuu
%
append delete #12. pekman

% Arch Linux
# pacman -Syyuu
%

append delete #13. pekman

Vamos

% Arch Linux
# pacman -Syyuu
%

append delete #14. pekman

teste

% Arch Linux
# pacman -Syyuu
%
Vejamos

append delete #15. pekman

Plain speech marks

Curly quotes

Guillemots

Reply

(Leave this as-is, it’s a trap!)

There is no need to “register”, just enter the same name + password of your choice every time.

Pro tip: Use markup to add links, quotes and more.

Your friendly neighbourhood moderators: pekman